India is not only regarded as one of the “mega biodiversity” countries but also the source for traditional knowledge system. The wealth of resources offers both, exciting opportunities of judiciously using them as well as challenges in conserving them. Since time immemorial plants are used for curing various diseases for man and animals. Even today, in rural region of India, where modern medicine is inaccessible, medicine based on folk plant is often used for treating human and livestock. For therapeutic approach, traditional knowledge system (TKS)on medicinal plants serves as a selection prototype. This knowledge has been developed through trial and error and deliberate experimentation. The search for new chemicals should thus be a priority in current and future efforts toward sustainable conservation and rational utilization of biodiversity.
Today’s greatest challenge is that, the “1 disease, 1 target, 1 drug” mode cannot treat some complex diseases effectively, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, the treatment has seen a shift to the “multi-drugs and multi-targets” mode for combination therapies. Therefore, in the future, multidisciplinary collaborative research, closely cooperated with new ideas, such as network pharmacology and big data, will be possible to explain the synergism and other mechanisms of natural products and traditional medicines developed from (TKS), from which more and better new drugs and treatment will be discovered and inspired. We propose to address these issues under this programme.
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