Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emerging role of small RNAs in the control of gene expression, is re-writing our understanding of human biology.
Advances in other areas of molecular biology over the past decade have revealed new levels of information contained within the nucleic acids, at both the organism and cellular level, far beyond that of simple DNA structure and sequence. There are several variants of such expression, which are often grouped together as “epigenetics”:
They can be RNA-mediated, in which for example, tissue-specific micro-RNA (miRNA) sequences, usually about 20–25 bases long, influence the expression of genes, via their interaction with messenger RNA (mRNA).Specific sequences of DNA (predominantly the cytosine bases in runs of CpG sequences) become methylated during the course of an organism’s development. The sites of methylation are specific to chromosomal location, and to a subset of cells or tissues, and assert extensive control of the expression of genes in those cells. Methylation of specific sites can be governed by behavioral or other environmental influences. Intriguingly, methylated patterns of DNA can be passed on to offspring, which has profound implications for such established paradigms as Mendelian and Darwinian inheritance. Specific methylation patterns are associated with particular disease states and other phenotypic traits, and can be detected in the laboratory by variants of current classical and next-generation DNA sequencing technologies. These emerging technologies have implications not only for the medical sciences, but of particular significance to the application of these technologies to forensic biology.
Today microbiology has emerged as one of the most important branches of life sciences. As microbes practically affect all activities of our life like, food, clothing, shelter, health hygiene etc, so also microbiology has made vast progressive strides in all these fields in little less than a century to improve the quality of our life. Infectious diseases have almost been conquered by new drugs, quality of agricultural crops improved by using techniques of genetic engineering, new varieties of wines, liquors have been produced perhaps to rise the spirit of man - all these arc possible only because of microbiology. All these will make us wonder how our life would have been without the Knowledge of microbiology.
In addition of these research domains, it is also proposed to embark upon the contributions of microbiology upon food industry, specifically with the aim of tackling the problem, of malnutrition by taking up researches based on the applications of various microorganisms in production of food products.
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